The abstracts of the most interesting articles listed below can be found on MedLine through many portals, eg PubMed.


Maintenance treatment of opiate addicts in Germany with medications containing codeine - results of a follow-up study.


Analgesia by dihydrocodeine is not due to formation of dihydromorphine: evidence from nociceptive activity in rat thalamus

Characterization of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of dihydrocodeine

Dihydrocodeine: a new opioid substrate for the polymorphic CYP2D6 in humans

Dihydrocodeine - a reversible cause of renal failure?

Dihydrocodeine may have advantages in detoxifying methadone-maintained patients

Glucuronidation of dihydrocodeine by human liver microsomes and the effect of inhibitors

Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of dihydrocodeine in dog

Pharmacokinetics of dihydrocodeine and its active metabolite after single and multiple oral dosing

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral dihydrocodeine and its acid metabolites

Postmortem distribution of dihydrocodeine and metabolites in a fatal case of dihydrocodeine intoxication

Single dose dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain (Cochrane Review)

The effect of ageing on the pharmacokinetics of dihydrocodeine


Comparative metabolism of hydrocodone in man, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog

Heroin addicts in substitution programs

Hiccup and apparent myoclonus after hydrocodone: review of the opiate-related hiccup and myoclonus literature

Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 differentially modify discriminative-stimulus and antinociceptive effects of hydrocodone and hydromorphone in rhesus monkeys


A review of oxycodone's clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Analgesic studies of codeine and oxycodone in patients with cancer. I. Comparisons of oral with intramuscular codeine and of oral with intramuscular oxycodone

Analgesic studies of codeine and oxycodone in patients with cancer. II. Comparisons of intramuscular oxycodone with intramuscular morphine and codeine

Effects of blocking CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone

Incomplete, asymmetric, and route-dependent cross-tolerance between oxycodone and morphine in the Dark Agouti rat

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone when given intravenously and rectally to adult patients with cancer pain

Pharmacokinetics and ventilatory effects of oxycodone before and after liver transplantation

Pharmacokinetic comparison of intravenous and intranasal administration of oxycodone

Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone in patients with cancer

The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone after intramuscular and oral administration to healthy subjects

The relative potency between high dose oral oxycodone and intravenous morphine: a case illustration

Visual hallucination and tremor induced by sertraline and oxycodone in a bone marrow transplant patient

Opiates - general

Codeine and dihydrocodeine as substitute and alternative drugs

Hiccup and apparent myoclonus after hydrocodone: review of the opiate-related hiccup and myoclonus literature

Opiate detoxification under anesthesia: no apparent benefit but suppression of thyroid hormones and risk of pulmonary and renal failure

Opiate-induced pupillary effects in humans

Pharmacokinetics of opioids in liver disease


The effects of NMDA receptor antagonists and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Medication development issues for opiate addiction

The combination of tizanidine markedly improves the treatment with dextromethorphan of heroin addicted outpatients